Day 2 Review:
The day got off to a great start with City Island winning for us at odds of 8/1. He got into a battle with Champ but he pulled away from that rival at the finish. Sam's profile also placed in the race for us. The RSA turned out to be a battle between the top 3 in the market just like we said. Delta Work got squeezed out of it at the final fence and had to be switched wide. The front two Topofthegame and Santini got first run on him fortunately. Delta Work was a shade unlucky. We had no joy with our each way selections in the Coral Cup but we did give the 2nd Wicklow Brave a good chance in our writeup. The race was won by William Henry at 28/1. The Champion Chase as expected was won by Altior but we had no selection in the race. We had the winner of the 5th race on the card in the shape of our 4 Star tip Tiger Roll who won at odds of 11/8. We said he'd win if he put in a clear round and he absolutely destroyed them. He's most likely going to be the widest margin winner of the week. Gordon Elliott said they might run the horse in a Grade 1 next instead of the Grand National. We had no joy in the Fred Winter which was won by Band of Outlaws. We liked the winner but were put off by the weight it had. Envoi Allen won the bumper under Jamie Codd. Our selection ran too keen early and had nothing left at the finish.
Total Points Staked: 25.
Total Points Return: 35.5
Profit Loss Over 2 Days: +12.4 points
We've made profit both days of the festival, nothing crazy good but solid profit is always good. We're hoping to add to that today with a few bigger priced fancies. Today is not a day for standout bets all bar 1 so we're going to be mainly going for outsiders that we think have a live chance.
Race 1: JLT Novice Chase - 1:30 PM
This race run over 2 mile 4f looks like a very open renewal. This race has only been in existence for 8 years but the trends show a big bias in favour of Irish trained horses.We can draw some pretty strong conclusions from the limited evidence we have. It looks like you want to be backing a Irish trained, 6 or 7 year-old, rated 144 or higher who had made 3-5 starts that season and recorded 4+ career wins. Willie Mullins has been the trainer to follow in this race in the past. He has won it 4 from 8 times and has had 5 places. Also worth noting Gordon Elliott has had just the 1 runner in this race and it was Shattered Love who won the race 12 months ago The key trial for this race is the Irish Racing Post Novice Chase. Le Richeburg won that an Tuesdays 2nd Us and Them was runner up. Voix De Reve was a good 3rd in that race and he ticks the boxes for all the trends as does the 4th in that race Mengli Khan. Voix De Reve looks to be the first choice Willie Mullins trained horse in this race even though Ruby rides Real Steel. Viox De Reve is a horse that has an awful lot of experience which is really good with this race in mind. He's won four hurdle races and also won 2 chases. He would have won the Fred Winter hurdle at this festival few years back only for falling at the last. His jumping has been a bit of a concert throughout his career. He was in with a great chance of winning a Grade 1 last time out but stumbled and fell after landing over the final fence. He had Mengli Khan in behind again in that race.
Mengli Khan was the better of these two over hurdles and was a decent 3rd in the Supreme Novices Hurdle last year. This horse has taken to fences really well. He won very easily on chase debut by 10L and ran two solid races in Grade 1's since. Those runs all came over good ground though, this horse is a soft ground horse. I think we have yet to see the best of him over fences and we may well do so today. It's hard to split these two horses. Real Steel would have a great chance if the ground was good. It's currently good to soft as it dried out yesterday but there is forecast rain which won't help its chances. I think the yard has a better chance in Voix De Reve. The Irish horse may have the upper hand on the British trained horses in this yet again. I think Defi Du Seuil needs better ground and Lost in Translation was a fair bit behind Mengli Khan in last years Supreme. Of the British trained runners the one I like is Vinndication. This horse has been progressive in it's career. He beat Champ in a graded novice hurdle and has has won 2 decent novice chases. He was 3rd to Defi Du Seuil and Lost in Translation last time out. I think he'll get much closer to those today. There is a slight doubt about this horse over this course. He doesn't have much left handed track form. Kildisart won a handicap last time out. I don't think he's up to this level and his jumping can be iffy at times. We think the Irish will dominate this race. Real Steel will want the ground to dry out but it's unlikely. We think Voix De Reve and Mengli Khan are decent each way value.
Voix De Reve 11/1 ?/? EW
Mengli Khan 16/1 ? EW
Race 2: Pertemps Hurdle 2:10
This is an open looking race on paper but I believe there is one horse who is very well handicapped in this race and will take a world of beating. It is the Gordon Elliott trained Sire De Berlais. This horse was a fast finishing 4th in the Martin Pipe Hurdle at last years festival over 2 mile 4f. He ran off a mark of 144 then and only runs off a 1lb higher mark today. That suggests that this horse has been kept for this race for some time. Sire De Berlais badly needed its first run back this season but ran a very eye catching race last time out when 6th at Leopardstown over Christmas. That race has proven to be the best trial for this race in recent years. Presenting Percy and Mall Dini both ran in it before winning this race. Today's rivals Cuneo, Walk To Freedom and Thermistocles filled out the first 3 placings. Cuneo was best off at the weights that day and Sire De Berlais was worst off. Walk to Freedom and Thermistocles are both now 2lb better off with Cuneo and Walk to Freedom is 1lb better off with Thermistocles. Sire De Berlais though is now 6lb better off with Walk to Freedom, 6lb better off with Thermistocles and 9lb better off with Cuneo. Thermistocles ran a decent race for a novice then but that race was on good ground and all of his best form is on good. Unless the ground dries out I couldn't fancy him. Walk to Freedom goes on soft however but Sire De Berlais has a 6lb turnaround in the weights today. The only negative about Sire De Berlais is the jockey. I just don't think Barry Geraghty is as good as he was. Nevertheless he horse might be so well handicapped he could win this on the bridle and all Barry would have to do is steer him.
Horses who run over fences and come back to run over hurdles have a decent record over the years. Mainly because this race is used as a trial for the Grand National by some. Abolitionist, Champers On Ice and A Toi Phil fit the same profile in this race. Champers on Ice was a decent novice hurdler 2 seasons back and was 3rd in the Albert Bartlett at this festival. He went novice chasing last season and he just din't take to it. He's been running mainly over hurdles this season and run here off a very nice mark of 135. This is a race his trainer David Pipe has won in the past and a race his father won as a trainer too. I like this horse for this race as he'll stay well and goes on the ground but the main concern is the form of it's trainer. David Pipes last 28 runners have failed to win and not many even placed. I can't back the horse with the yard being in such poor form. The Grand National is the main aim for Abolitionist this year but runs here as a trial. His trainer has has had horses win and place in this race and go on and go well in the National itself. Pineau De Reu is one who comes to mind. Abolistionist was a decent handicap chaser in Ireland when trained by Shark Hanlon and Ellmarie Holden. This horse won a Leinster National and was 3rd in a Irish Grand National. It's hurdle form has never been as good as its chase form though and he runs off a much lower hurdle rating that his chase one. He'll be finishing better than most and could well place in this race but he's not one I'm siding with. Of the chasers who are coming back over hurdles I'd give A Toi Phil a good chance in this. He was a decent novice hurdler a few years ago but is a graded winner over fences. Ran a cracker in some big handicaps such as the Galway Plate. Was placed in graded races behind Un De Sceau last season. He hadn't shown any form this season until being brought back over hurdles last time out. He ran a very eye catching race and stayed on well at the finish. Last years winner of this race Delta Work had run in that race previously. Of the others Notwhatiam is an interesting horse. He's very lightly raced and has shown in its last two starts that he's up to winning a race like this. Sire De Berlais is one we're going to get stuck into each way. 11/2 isn't the best price but I think he'll go very close. His stablemate A Toi Phil could be the one to chase him home.
Sire De Berlais 11/2 ??/??
A Toi Phil 18/1 ? EW
Race 3: Ryanair Chase 2:50 PM
This is always a great race to watch and its for horses who are basically too slow for the Champion Chase and don't stay the Gold Cup Trip. This years race is the best renewal in some time. The last 14 winners were all 16/1 or shorter with 11 of the 14 winners 13/2 or shorter. Grade 1 form is a must and horse who have won over further is also a help. The last 9 winners were rated higher than 161 which would rule out 5 of todays runners. 7 of 14 winners were French bred. Horses with previous course and festival form are also worth following. The trainers to follow in this are Willie Mullins and Henry De Bromhead. This race looks like a three horse race based on the ratings and form. Before we get into the fancied ones. I'm not a Footpad fan. It does have a few wins on soft ground but the horse's best form has been on good. This horses jumping can be iffy too. The horse has also yet to prove itself over this trip. You really want a horse that stays 3 mile in this race. His stablemate Un De Sceaux has won this race in the past and placed last year. While he'll love the ground he's 11 years old now and his best days are behind him. It was a poor renewal that he was 2nd in last year behind Balko Des Flo. Coney Island and Charbel havent shown anything like their best in a while, I couldn't have them or Terrefort who usually finds 1 or 2 too good. The three I really like are Frodon, Road to Respect and Monalee.
Frodon loves this track and is sure to give Bryony Frost a great ride round. He won over 3 mile for the first time last time out in a Gold Cup trial. His trainer Paul Nicolls chose this race over the Gold Cup after some consideration. This horse should stay better than most but the only worry I have is the ground. You look through this horses form and nearly every race it's run the ground has been good. There's overnight rain forecast so there isn't much chance of Frodon getting his ground. I still think he can place though. Road to Respect the Noel Meade trained horse is another who runs here instead of the Gold Cup. Road to Respect won the Bron Advisory Plate here a few seasons back on good ground but has gone on to be a Grade 1 winner in recent times. He beat last years winner of this race Balko Des Flo in the race before last years festival. He ran in the Gold Cup instead of this and ran a gallant race to be 4th on awful ground. This horse prefers good ground but is fine on soft. He was won on season reappearance and was then 3rd behind Gold Cup hope Kemboy in the Savilles Grade 1 Chase. Monalee was 7L in front of this horse that day. Road to Respect then finished a short head 2nd in the Irish Gold Cup behind Gold Cup hope Bellshill. He had a tough race then and went down in a tight finish. Horses who place in the Gold Cup and then run here the following season have a decent record. Cue Card was the most recent one to do that and win this race.
Monalee is my idea of the winner. This gelding was a really good novice hurdler and was 2nd to subsequent World Hurdle winner Penhill in the Albert Bartlett at this festival. Last season Monalee won the Grade 1 Flo Gas Chase over this trip at Leopardstown and then ran a gallant 2nd to Gold Cup favourite Presenting Percy in the RSA at this festival last year. Its interesting to note, Monalee was 14L clear of Elegant Escape then. That horse was only beaten a length by Frodon last time out. Monalee's 2nd in that Savilles Chase was a fantastic run and this gelding had a nice prep run recently at Gowran Park where he beat last years Gold Cup 3rd Annibale Fly comfortably. There were rumors this horse would go for the Gold Cup but there's no doubt that this trip of 2 mile 5f is its perfect trip. This horse will relish the conditions unlike Frodon and Road to Respect. Monalee has been 2nd and the last two Cheltenham Festival's. I'm hoping he can go one better today. It's trainer Henry De Bromhead won this race last year and he rates Monalee much higher than that one.
Selection: Monalee 9/2 ???? NAP
Race 4: Stayers Hurdle - 3:30 PM
This is the feature race of the day. This years renewal looks an open affair. First off I'm going to start with Faugheen. This horse was a legend in its day and won a Ballymore and a Champion Hurdle. He ran very bad last season at times including here in the Champion Hurdle. He surprised many when returning to form with a runaway win over last years Stayers Hurdler winner Penhill at Punchestown. The step up in trip to 3 mile really brought out the best in this horse. He was 2nd on season reappearance but took a horrible fall when last seen in December. There were talks of retirement about the horse after that but recent reports from the Willie Mullins yard about the horse have been really good. One main trend against him is his age. He's 11 now, the race hasn't been won by an 11 year old in the last 20 years. My heart says yes but my head says no in regards to Faugheen winning. Outsiders West Approach, Bacardy's and Wholestone aren't without a chance. West Approach was running over fences of late but returned to hurdling on his last 2 starts when 2 both times to race favourite Paisley Park.He has it to do with that one today but wouldn't rule out a bold showing. Bacardy's was going to place in the race last year but fell at the last. He hasn't shown any hint of ability this season though. Wholestone was 3rd in the Albert Bartlett to Penhill and 3rd to Penhill in this race last year. At 40/1 he could place but he does have work to do with last years 2nd Supasundae.
Supasundae is such a consistent horse. He won the Coral Cup at this festival 2 years back off a huge weight and as mentioned finished a gallant 2nd to Penhill in this race last year. Penhill misses the race this time round so you think that this horse is the one they all have to beat on form. The young up and coming horse in this race last year was Sam Spinner who won all the trials. He came a disappointing 5th. Paisley Park is this years up and coming horse. Last year he ran very keen in the Albert Bartlett and ran a shocking race. He was beaten at the top of the hill. He wouldn't want to run keen today. He has looked a much better horse this season though. The Emma Lavelle trained gelding has won 4 in a row including a grade 3 handicap, a grade 2 and a grade 1. This horse needs to be held up out the back in its races and put to sleep. It has had an issue with doing too much too soon in its races. The new tactics have helped this horse and he's gone from strength to strength. He beat West Approach in both of his last 2 races. While the form is decent it doesn't suggest he should be favourite for this race. The horse can hit a flat spot in its race too. It traded big odds in running last time out but he out stayed them all up the straight. I like this horse, I think he's progressive but I just think Supasundae should be favourite. Was 2nd in the race last year and has the proven Grade 1 form. This horse has won Grade 1's over 2 miles and is just as good if not better over 3 miles. I think he'll give Paisley Park a fair old fight and he may have too much tactical speed for him in the crucial stages of the race.
Last years Albert Bartlett winner Kilbricken Storm is the forgotten horse in this race. He beat RSA runner up Santini in that race last year and he was game in the finish. That race has been a very good trial for this race in recent years and Penhill won it before winning this. Kilbricken Storm has had 2 runs over fences this season. He didn't take to fences at all and you can dismiss those runs. If he shows anything like the form he did when winning at the Festival last year he would go close. Colin Tizzard trains this horse and also West Approach. Given that West Approach has finished 2nd to Paisley Park 2nd, I think Tizzard has a fair idea how this horse will do in comparison.
Supasundae 8/1 ??/?? EW
Kilbricken Storm 12/1 ?/? EW
Race 5: Brown Advisory Chase - 4:10 PM
This race is a very tough race to find the winner of and it can throw up some real big outsiders. With a 66/1, 50/1, two at 33/1 and a 25/1 winner in the last eleven years, Venetia Williams is a trainer to follow in this race she has won it twice and had four placed horses. David Pipe is another trainer who has done well in this race with 3 winners and six places. Horses who have run well at the festival here also have a very good record. Horses who carry under 11 stone in this handicap have a tremendous record. Horses who come here on the back of a few wins are best ignored according to the trends. Janika is the favourite for this race and has shown a good level of form in its 2 runs for it's new yard since joining from France. I'm not sure if this horse is well handicapped though. On form he'd have a good chance but he has a burden weight of 11-12 to carry in this. Only 3 horses in the last 20 years have won with more than 11 stone. River Wylde its stablemate was 3rd to Labaik in the 2017 Supreme Novices Hurdle. It's not run much since then. It's shown a good level of form so far over fences but took a bad fall last time out when coming to win the race. He's another one who's talented but has a lot of weight to carry. Kalondra ran well in the Coral Cup here in 2017 and has won over the course. He hasn't shown anything this season though to say he's going to take this. Eamon On Cnoic is one who loves heavy ground. It's trainer has won this race 5 times in the past. As mentioned earlier this trainer has been in dire form for the past month and gone nearly 30 runners without a winner. If its horse earlier on the card runs well then it might be worth betting on this.
Valseur Lido is another who has festival form but hasn't shown anything this season. Polidam's losing record goes back to 2017 but is capable on a going day. He's got decent placed form in handicaps like this on soft ground and could well place in this but is not one for win purposes. Gardefort is trained by Venetia Williams who has a very good record in this race. Her horses have to be taken notice of in this. This horse has festival form, he ran 2nd in the Grand Annual in 2017. This horse loves soft and heavy ground. He hasn't shown anything in his 3 runs this season but has dropped to a very nice mark 8lb below it's peak. It's trainer also has Didero Vallis right down at the bottom of the weights. The stable jockey also rides this one. Didero Vallis was formerly trained by Willie Mullins but now with Venetia Williams. This horse won its first 2 races for this yard over 3 mile on soft ground. I'd ignore it's last run, it was on good ground and the horse hated it. The horse sneaks into the bottom of the race, has a low weight, stays further and will love the ground. This race can throw up an outsider, this one could be it. The other horse I like in the race is Doitforthevillage. He ran into a late 6th place in the Grand Annual over 2 mile at last years festival. The horse has stepped up in trip since and won over 2 mile 3f. The further step up in trip here should suit even more. He's has excuses for his runs since. He ran into two improving sorts. While neither Doitforthevillage nor Didero Vallis are as classy as River Wylde or Janika, I think they'll both run a big race at big odds.
Doitforthevillage 20/1 ? EW
Didero Vallis 25/1 ? EW
Race 6: Mares Novice Hurdle 4:50 PM
They're aren't much trends to go on in this race as the race has only been run 3 times previously. Willie Mullins has won it all 3 years with a 5 year old ex French mare. 22 mares go to post for this wide open looking race. Most firms will pay four places on this even though it is not a handicap. Willie Mullins is the man to follow in this and he runs no less that seven runners. I know the owners of Queenofhearts the Stuart Edmunds trainer mare. She's tough and loves soft ground but the trainer is worried about the drop in trip and whether shes's up to Grade 1 level. I also know the owners of Court Maid a 100/1 outsider. They are quietly confident of a good run. The mare won 3 races on the trot but disappointed last time out. The owner said she came into season then and just ignore the run. While she may not be up to this level I would not rule out a top 10 finish. Epatante and Posh Trish are the main two in this race. Both are talented mares and are tough and genuine. Epatante looks to be have more potential but I don't rate either as value in a 22 runner mares novice hurdle at 15/8 and 5/1.
Tintangle is a big outsider that has some solid novice hurdle form. This Gordon Elliott trained mare beat Sassy Diva who won since. Tintangle was 3rd to Aramon in a Grade 1 and was 3rd to Honeysuckle in a Grade 3 mares novice. Honeysuckle was my main fancy for this race but misses it due to injury. Tintangle fell 2 out on its last start but was still in touch in a race won by todays rival Sinoria. Of the Willie Mullins trained outsiders Eglantine Du Seuil is the one that interests me. This mare won on soft in France and won on debut for Willie Mullins on good ground. It's 3rd in a listed hurdle against the boys was a very good run. She only finished 3L behind a subsequent Grade 1 winner in Aramon. Ruby Walsh has elected to ride My Sister Sarah of the seven runners. Shes 3 from 4 but doesn't fit the profile of the last 3 Mullins winners of this race. She's Irish Bred and looks more like a stayer. I think this race will throw up an outsider this year. Willie Mullins doesn't have that one stand out mare in the race this year. I've a sneaky feeling he could win this with an outsider so I'm going to side with Eglantine Du Seuil under Noel Fehily and Tintangle for Gordon Elliott at huge prices.
Eglantine Du Seuil 33/1 ? EW
Tintangle 50/1 ? EW
Race 7: Kim Muir Chase - 5:30 PM
This race is run over 3 miles and 2 furlongs and is for amateur jockeys only. It's best to side with the top amateur jockeys in this such as Jamie Codd, Derek O'Connor, Lisa O'Neill and Patrick Mullins. The U.K trained horses have a much better record in this than the Irish but the Irish trained horses have managed to win 2 of the last 5. The trends suggest your looking to be with a horse aged between 7 and 10, recorded no more than 7 career wins, no more than 2 handicap career wins, no more than 1 win this season, has proven stamina and is rated higher than 134. Graded winners have a poor record in this race. Basically what the trends hint at is you need to be with a horse who is unexposed and hasn't won too many races. There are a few in this race that fit that profile. Gordon Elliott, Nicky Henderson and David Pipe have a strong record in the race. Jamie Codd has won the race 4 times. This race as always is really open.
Any Second Now has the best if not 2nd best jockey in the race. This horse has promised so much in its career but he's found it so hard to win. He fits the profile of this race for not winning many races. He's actually 0 from 9 over fences. He's placed in some graded races and has gone up and up in the ratings. I think the step up in trip will suit and he may well place but I can't have him for win purposes off this big weight. Out Sam ran a nice race in the Thyestes and has a decent jockey on board who can claim 7lb. I just think he's too exposed to win this race though. Rogue Angel is another who has shown very good staying form and won an Irish National but looks exposed now. Drumconnor Lad ran a good race over hurdles last time, it should put him spot on for this but stamina is a concern.
While Perfect Candidate is 12 years old now he loves this course. He's won 3 times at this course in the past off of higher marks. He's slowly coming down the weights. He returned to form when he ran over this course and distance last time out. The race was won by Beware of the Bear who won the big handicap here on Tuesday. That's decent form from a course specialist and mud lover. 33/1 is a nice price about this one. He may find 2 or 3 too good but I can see him placing. For me this is a four horse race from a win purpose. The 4 I like are Sky Pirate, Measureofmydreams, No Comment and It's All Guesswork.
Measureofmydreams was the subject of a big ante post gamble for this race. Gordon Elliott who trains this horse let slip at a Cheltenham stable tour that the horse has been working incredibly well. That may be true but lets just look at its form. He was well beaten 43L in the Albert Bartlett in 2015 when trained by Willie Mullins. He ran 3rd in the 4 mile national hunt chase here in 2016. He changed stable to Noel Meade in 2016 and missed a year. Returned in January 2017 and pulled up in the Thyestes at Gowran. On its next run he came 13th of 23 in the Ultima Chase at this festival in 2017. He then unseated in the Grand National and ran 9th in the Irish National beaten 32L in April of 2017. He then missed 2 years and returned to the track for Gordon Elliott as a 10 year old in February of this year where he ran 3rd in a poor 6 horse race. None of that suggests that this horse is a solid choice. Yes Gordon Elliott may have brought the horse back to life and Jamie Codd rides it but I could not back this horse for this race at 4/1 let alone 14/1. If he goes and win's fair enough I've egg on my face but from a betting standpoint I don't fancy it.
Gordon Elliott's other horse It's all Guess Work is a decent novice chaser. His jumping is questionable but fits the profile for this race. His owner has had a winner at the last 3 festivals and also owns Presenting Percy so that has to be taken notice of. The U.K trained horses have always had the best record in the race. I'm going to side with two U.K based horses in No Comment and Sky Pirate. No Comment has a tick in all the boxes in regards to trends for this race. He's lightly raced, not one many races and has a very nice handicap mark. The horse also have festival form and goes on this ground. This horse beat Monalee in a soft ground bumper and won 3 novice hurdles. This Philip Hobbs trained gelding was 6th in the Martin Pipe Handicap at the festival 2 years back and was 6th to Rathvinden in the 4 mile National Hunt Chase at last years festival. He had a decent prep run recently to get him spot on for this race. He's one of the least exposed horses in the race and has the potential to do better. He's passed over by Derek O'Connor who rides Any Second Now but I still like this ones chances.
Sky Pirate the other fancy I have in the race is a novice chaser and was mentioned by Patrick Mullins at a Cheltenham Preview as a dark horse for the festival This horse is trained by Jonjo O'Neill. He has won this race in the past. This horse's form is mostly on good ground but I think given the breeding he should have no problems with it. Sky Pirate was coming there to win a race here in November under Patrick Mullins but fell 2 out. He since had a prep run to get him fully fit for this race. I think he's got a good chance of placing at nice odds.
No Comment 11/1 ?/? EW
Sky Pirate 12/1 ?/? EW
Main Win Selection:
Monalee 9/2 ???? NAP
Main Each Way Selections:
3:30 Supasundae 8/1 ??/?? ( 4 Places Each Way - Betvictor )
2:10 Sire De Berlais 11/2 ??/?? ( 6 Places Each Way - Betfair )
1:30 Voix De Reve 11/1 ?/? (3 Places Each Way William Hill)
3:30 Kilbricken Storm 12/1 ?/? ( 4 Places Each Way - Betvictor )
5:30 No Comment 11/1 ?/? ( 5 Places Each Way - PP )
5:30 Sky Pirate 12/1 ?/? ( 5 Places Each Way - PP )
1:30 Mengli Khan 16/1 ? ( 0.5 Each Way 3 Places William Hill)
2:10 A Toi Phil 18/1 ? (0.5 Each Way 6 Places - Betfair)
4:10 Doitforthevillage 20/1 ? ( 0.5 Each Way 5 Places - PP )
4:10 Didero Vallis 25/1 ? ( 0.5 Each Way 5 Places - Bet365 )
4:50 Eglantine Du Seuil 33/1 ? ( 0.5 Each Way 4 Places - PP )
4:50 Tintangle 50/1 ? ( 0.5 Each Way 4 Places - PP )